Chess

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The History of Chess

-The Basics-

This short piece is taken from chess.com

https://www.chess.com/article/view/the-history-of-chess

Today we know that chess originated from the Gupta Empire (600CE), of India. However, many people firmly believe that chess was played by the ancient Egyptians, but the game we think of as chess and what the Egyptians used to play are completely different. Simply put, the Egyptians played something different that resembled chess. Despite this, we really don’t know who first came up with the game, but it can be traced officially back to India.

The pieces come from the primary military elements of that time: the infantry, the elephants, the cavalry and the chariots. (see Shaturanga)

Global trade eventually brought the game to Europe, and around 1200CE the game undertook dramatic changes to become what it is today. In Italy and Spain, such changes gave their pawns the ability to move two squares on the first move, bishops their dominance over diagonals and queens their ability to move anywhere.

During the 18th century, the centre of the chess world switched to western Europe to areas like France. Matches were played in large coffee-houses in cities such as London and Paris. It wasn’t until the 19th century that chess became widely known.

The first chess tournament was held in London (1851). The winner was a German by the name of Adolf Anderssen. Adolf Anderssen was also the winner of the “Immortal Game“.

“Cafe de la Regence” in Paris during XIX century.

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The text below comes from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rules_of_chess

The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of chess. While the exact origins of chess are unclear, modern rules first took form during the Middle Ages. The rules continued to be slightly modified until the early 19th century, when they reached essentially their current form. The rules also varied somewhat from place to place. Today, the standard rules are set by FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), the international governing body for chess. Slight modifications are made by some national organisations for their own purposes. There are variations of the rules for fast chess, correspondence chess, online chess, and Chess960.

Chess is a two-player board game using a chessboard and sixteen pieces of six types for each player. Each type of piece moves in a distinct way. The object of the game is to checkmate (threaten with inescapable capture) the opponent’s king. Games do not necessarily end in checkmate; players often resign if they believe they will lose. A game can also end in a draw in several ways.

Besides the basic moves of the pieces, rules also govern the equipment used, time control, conduct and ethics of players, accommodations for physically challenged players, and recording of moves using chess notation. Procedures for resolving irregularities that can occur during a game are provided as well.

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